Insertion Sort – Revisited

Insertion Sort implements an algorithm similar to ordering a hand of cards in ascending order. The algorithm is O(n^2) execution and typically is useful when sorting a rather small number of elements.

Several years ago (November 03, 2016) I generated the post Insertion Sort in this blog. The code snippets do not look nice. It seems that the tool I was using to format source code is no longer working as expected. Continue reading “Insertion Sort – Revisited”

Largest Triple Product Third Post in Java

In this post we will revisit a practice question Largest Triple Products. Not sure if today this question would be of interest to Facebook and /or to Meta Platforms technical job seekers.

My original post Largest Triple Products was superseded by Largest Triple Products – Revisited and by this latest post.

The motivation for this post came from a question left by Brent Boyer which suggested an implementation for the function of interest. I have included it in this post as `findMaxProduct3`. Continue reading “Largest Triple Product Third Post in Java”

LeetCode 111. Minimum Depth of Binary Tree in Java

In this post we will solve LeetCode 111. Minimum Depth of Binary Tree problem using Java and the VSCode IDE on a Windows computer. Not that it matters, but I am using Windows 11.

Given a binary tree, find its minimum depth.

The minimum depth is the number of nodes along the shortest path 
from the root node down to the nearest leaf node.

Note: A leaf is a node with no children.

Constraints:

o The number of nodes in the tree is in the range [0, 10^5].
o -1000 <= Node.val <= 1000

Related Topics:

o Tree
* Depth-First Search
* Breadth-First Search
o Binary Tree

We are given the root of a binary tree and are asked to find the minimum depth of the tree. A couple years ago we solved in this post Maximum Depth of a Binary Tree.

The definition of minimum depth is provided in the requirements for the problem at hand. Continue reading “LeetCode 111. Minimum Depth of Binary Tree in Java”

LeetCode 681. Next Closest Time in Java

In this post we will solve LeetCode 681. Next Closest Time problem using the Java programming language, the VSCode IDE on a Windows computer. Please note that the computer platform and the IDE should make no difference. One of the simplest ways to solve the problem is to use the online IDE provided by LeetCode.

Given a time represented in the format "HH:MM", 
form the next closest time by reusing the current digits. 
There is no limit on how many times a digit can be reused.

You may assume the given input string is always valid. 
For example, "01:34", "12:09" are all valid. 
"1:34", "12:9" are all invalid.

Constraints:

* time.length == 5
* time is a valid time in the form "HH:MM".
o 0 <= HH < 24
o 0 <= MM < 60

Related Topics:

o String
o Enumeration

We are given a string with a time expressed in 24-hour format. By reusing the digits as many times as needed, we need to form the next closest time. Continue reading “LeetCode 681. Next Closest Time in Java”

LeetCode 949. Largest Time for Given Digits in Java

In this post we will solve the LeetCode 949. Largest Time for Given Digits problem using the Java programming language and the VSCode IDE on a Windows computer.

Given an array arr of 4 digits, 
find the latest 24-hour time that can be made using each digit exactly once.

24-hour times are formatted as "HH:MM", 
where HH is between 00 and 23, 
and MM is between 00 and 59. 
The earliest 24-hour time is 00:00, and the latest is 23:59.

Return the `latest`di 24-hour time in "HH:MM" format.
If no valid time can be made, return an empty string.

Related Topics:

o String
o Enumeration

We are given an int[] array with four digits. We need to find the latest 24-hour time using exactly each digit once and return the results using the HH:MM format. Continue reading “LeetCode 949. Largest Time for Given Digits in Java”

LeetCode 84. Largest Rectangle in Histogram in Java

In this post we will solve LeetCode 84. Largest Rectangle in Histogram problem using the Java programming language and the VSCode IDE on a Windows computer.

Given an array of integers heights representing the histogram's bar height where the width of each bar is 1, 
return the area of the largest rectangle in the histogram.

Constraints:

o 1 <= heights.length <= 10^5
o 0 <= heights[i] <= 10^4

Related Topics:
* Array
o Stack
* Monotonic Stack

We are given an array representing a histogram. The width of each bar holding a value is 1 unit. We are asked to return the area of the largest rectangle in the histogram. Continue reading “LeetCode 84. Largest Rectangle in Histogram in Java”

LeetCode 1804. Implement Trie II (Prefix Tree) in Java

In this post I will solve LeetCode 1804. Implement Trie II (Prefix Tree) problem using Java and the VSCode IDE on a Windows computer.

In a previous post we discussed and implemented a solution for LeetCode 208. Implement Trie (Prefix Tree) in Java which is similar yet different to this one.

Please note that I carried away experimenting with the current problem as I did with the previous one. Due to this I implemented two solutions. After the first one was accepted I tried improving performance and readability. That created a second solution. Due to my approach I ended up with a large amount of code which I will post and comment on. For the first implementation I will go light on comments. Continue reading “LeetCode 1804. Implement Trie II (Prefix Tree) in Java”

LeetCode 208. Implement Trie (Prefix Tree) in Java

In this post I will solve the LeetCode 208 Implement Trie (Prefix Tree) problem using the Java programming language and the VSCode IDE on a Windows computer. After the code was accepted by LeetCode I decided to add a couple features. The first one is to provide a method to access one of the main uses for a Trie (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Trie). The second, which is based on the first one, is used to display, in order, the words inserted into the Trie.

A trie (pronounced as "try") or prefix tree is a tree data structure 
used to efficiently store and retrieve keys in a dataset of strings. 
There are various applications of this data structure, 
such as autocomplete and spellchecker.

Implement the Trie class:

* Trie()
  Initializes the trie object.
* void insert(String word)
  Inserts the string word into the trie.
* boolean search(String word) 
  Returns true if the string word is in the trie (i.e., was inserted before), and false otherwise.
* boolean startsWith(String prefix) 
  Returns true if there is a previously inserted string word that has the prefix prefix, 
  and false otherwise.
 
Constraints:

o 1 <= word.length, prefix.length <= 2000
o word and prefix consist only of lowercase English letters.
o At most 3 * 10^4 calls in total will be made to insert, search, and startsWith.
 
Related Topics:

o Hash Table
o String
o Design
o Trie

The requirements are very well described. We need to implement the class Trie which must include a specific set of methods. In addition we need to specify the class members. Continue reading “LeetCode 208. Implement Trie (Prefix Tree) in Java”

Fruit Order in Cart in Java

In this post we will try to define some requirements and then solve the problem. I briefly saw this problem and was not able to get all the details. If it does not make much sense you could specify a variant and go on and solve it.

In this problem we are given a list of offer items and cart items.
The cart items are provided in the order the customer put them in the shopping cart.
The offer items are a list of list of items that must be put into the cart in the order specified.

I guess there could be different versions of the requirements,
but in our case, 
we need to make sure that all items in all the item lists are placed in the cart in the specified order.

Perhaps it would be more reasonable to get an additional discount if 
a set of items are placed in a specified order in the shopping cart,
or better yet,
if each set of items ends in the shopping cart the customer could receive additional offers.

We need to return true if all items are placed in the shopping cart in the specified order;
otherwise we return false.

Constraints:
o 1 <= number of items <= 100
o 0 <= number of offers <= 100
o The string `anything` in the offers indicates 
  that the correspoinding item in the shopping cart should be ignored.

The requirements call for having two lists available. In one is a set of offers that require all the specified items to be placed (not just be found) into the cart in the order specified by the offer item. Not only that, but all items must be placed in the cart in the order specified by all offers. That is how we will proceed. Continue reading “Fruit Order in Cart in Java”

LeetCode 904. Fruit Into Baskets in Java

In this post we will solve the LeetCode 904. Fruit Into Baskets problem using the Java programming language.

You are visiting a farm that has a single row of fruit trees arranged from left to right. 
The trees are represented by an integer array fruits where fruits[i] is the type of fruit the ith tree produces.

You want to collect as much fruit as possible. 
However, the owner has some strict rules that you must follow:

o You only have two baskets, and each basket can only hold a single type of fruit. 
  There is no limit on the amount of fruit each basket can hold.
o Starting from any tree of your choice, 
  you must pick exactly one fruit from every tree (including the start tree) while moving to the right. 
  The picked fruits must fit in one of your baskets.
o Once you reach a tree with fruit that cannot fit in your baskets, you must stop.

Given the integer array fruits, return the maximum number of fruits you can pick.

Constraints:

o 1 <= fruits.length <= 10^5
o 0 <= fruits[i] < fruits.length

Related Topics:

o Array
o Hash Table
o Sliding Window

The two approaches that came to mind are using a hashmap, which should not have the best performance but should be acceptable, and the second using a sliding window, which should be faster than the one using a hashmap. Continue reading “LeetCode 904. Fruit Into Baskets in Java”